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  Propionibacterium acnes market 2009-09-11  


According to the Mayo Clinic, the pathogenesis of acne (diagram) is formed when the

1. pore is clogged (no oxygen)

2. Propionibacterium acnes a gram positive species which thrives under anaerobic conditions increases in numbers (this can be detected by measuring for endogenic porphyrin–coporphyrin III). Unlike most anaerobic bacteria, P. acnes is aerotolerant so it survives in the presence of oxygen.

3. When a pore is blocked, this anaerobic bacteria overgrows and secretes chemicals that breakdown the wall of the pore, spilling other bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus into the skin. Interestingly, Staph. aureus is a Gram positive, facultative anaerobe (it can exist in the presence and absence of oxygen).

Comparisons of Liquid Growth (this figure provides good insight)

4. the sebum/oils become infected with a mixture of bacteria

5. inflammation pathway is triggered, re-triggered and scars develop

Common typical solutions:

Usage of benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics (i.e. tetracyclin, Clindamycin, Azithromycin), tretinoin -for scarring, U.V. light

Common problems:

Treatment resistance getting intolerable, ineffective with side effects (dry skin, pigmentation), problems reappear in weeks/months, enviro-toxic, unnecessary chemo-induced aging.

Less common problems:

Photosensitivity increased, Redness, itching, hives, swelling and a burning sensation after topical application

Cautionary statements specific to tretinoin (i.e. Retin-A):

It is a teratogen, and therefore can cause birth defects and tests have shown increases in foetal skull abnormalities in rats. Women who are or may be pregnant, or who are seeking to become pregnant, are therefore warned against using it. This teratogenic effect is caused by the interference of the exogenous retinoic acid with endogenous retinoic acid signaling, which plays a role in patterning the developing embryo. However the risks of topical tretinoin to the unborn child seems to be 'limited'.

Research Objective:

To find an alternative, low cost method to non-invasively disrupt bacterial mixtures while impregnating them into a facial cleansing system.


The electric dipole moment for a pair of opposite charges of magnitude q is defined as the magnitude of the charge times the distance between them and the defined direction is toward the positive charge. It is a useful concept in atoms and molecules where the effects of charge separation are measurable, but the distances between the charges are too small to be easily measurable. It is also a useful concept in skincare applications (see documents).

Water molecules as a liquid state are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces, and these forces have been described as van der Waals forces or van der Waals bonds. Even though the water molecule as a whole is electrically neutral, the distribution of charge in the molecule is not symmetrical and leads to a dipole field - a microscopic separation of the positive and negative charge centers. This leads to a net attraction between such polar molecules which finds expression in the cohesion of water molecules and contributes to water's properties of viscosity and surface tension. Van der Waals forces are what holds water in the liquid state until thermal conditions are violent enough to break those van der Waal bonds at 100°C. With cooling, residual electrostatic forces between the molecules cause water to liquify and eventually solidfy into ice.


Chemical free, 100% eco-friendly. Upon dilution, the activated dipole will become normalized drinking water, low cost, non-invasive, hypoallergenic.


By utilizing uniquely dipolarized water, a unique action known to water molecules, aerotolerant, facultative and obligate can be reduced, removed without creating an enviro-compromising solutions. Additionally, resistance can not occur since the methodology is using molecular weight 18.0 g/mol smaller than oxygen (32.0 g/mol) as a penetration force.

Market size:

According to the 2003 annual report of Johnson & Johnson, the global skincare market is worth $43 billion per year. In June 2002, an Italian magazine: Italia Imballagio estimated that there are more than 14,000 cosmetics producers worldwide."Through acquisitions and, more importantly, strong post-acquisition growth, we now hold a leading position in the highly-fragmented $43billion per year global skin care market."Johnson & Johnson: 2003

Here is the 2008 annual report from Johnson & Johnson for comparisons:

Acne treatments will account for $561 million, or 16.9% of the market by 2008. Topical germicidals and antiseptic sector accounted for $469 million in 2003, representing 15.3% of total market value. (Source: GY T.)