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  Dispersion Technology 2009-09-11  


The electric dipole moment for a pair of opposite charges of magnitude q is defined as the magnitude of the charge times the distance between them and the defined direction is toward the positive charge. It is a useful concept in atoms and molecules where the effects of charge separation are measurable, but the distances between the charges are too small to be easily measurable. It is also a useful concept in skincare applications (see GY Innovations.pdf).

Water molecules as a liquid state are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces, and these forces have been described as van der Waals forces or van der Waals bonds. Even though the water molecule as a whole is electrically neutral, the distribution of charge in the molecule is not symmetrical and leads to a dipole field - a microscopic separation of the positive and negative charge centers. This leads to a net attraction between such polar molecules which finds expression in the cohesion of water molecules and contributes to water's properties of viscosity and surface tension. Van der Waals forces are what holds water in the liquid state until thermal conditions are violent enough to break those van der Waal bonds at 100°C. With cooling, residual electrostatic forces between the molecules cause water to liquify and eventually solidfy into ice. 

According to the Mayo Clinic, the pathogenesis of acne (diagram) is formed when the

1. pore is clogged (no oxygen)

2. Propionibacterium acnes a gram positive species which thrives under anaerobic conditions increases in numbers (this can be detected by measuring for endogenic porphyrin–coporphyrin III). Unlike most anaerobic bacteria, P. acnes is aerotolerant so it survives in the presence of oxygen.

3. When a pore is blocked, this anaerobic bacteria overgrows and secretes chemicals that breakdown the wall of the pore, spilling other bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus into the skin. Interestingly, Staph. aureus is a Gram positive, facultative anaerobe (it can exist in the presence and absence of oxygen).

4. the sebum/oils become infected with a mixture of bacteria

5. inflammation pathway is triggered, re-triggered and scars develop